Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Workings and Structure of the Heart Essay Example For Students

The Workings and Structure of the Heart Essay IntroductionFor homeostasis to remain balanced throughout the body millions of respiring cells need to discard carbon dioxide and waste products and also replenish with oxygen and nutrients. For this transaction to occur a complex transportation network called the cardiovascular system initiates. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, arteries and veins. The heart is a double pumping organ which is the driving force of the cardiovascular system, although only weighing approximately three hundred grams the heart is powerful enough to beat over seventy times a minute pumping blood around the body. The heart is located on the left hand side of the diaphragm lying within the mediastinum in the thoracic cavity. Resembling a pyramid on an oblique angle the heart is hollow and composed of three layers, myocardium, endocardium and pericardium. Myocardium formulates the majority of the heart; this is composed of specialised cardiac muscle occurring only in the heart. Endocardium is a smooth delicate membrane, which lines the interior surface of the heart chambers and valves, and the pericardium; which is a connective tissue, this acts as a protective barrier, the fibrous pericardium fuses with arteries which pass through it to form attachments which help to anchor the heart to its surrounding structures The interior of the heart is divided into two sides the right and left, nearly mirror image of each other a few differences can be recorded (see conclusion).Figure 1As figure 1 shows there is a complex network of arteries and veins which branch into the heart. It is through these arteries and veins that blood is transported throughout the body. The arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to tissues and cells throughout the body whereas the veins carry deoxygenated blood received to the heart. We will write a custom essay on The Workings and Structure of the Heart specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now As the heart is attached only by soft tissue it can change position in the diaphragm while it contracts and relaxes (diastole and systole) as in figure 2 and 3. Figure 2Figure 3For a better understanding of the structure and workings of the heart a heart dissection was performed, below are the conclusions gathered from the experiment. Conclusionso Distinguish between the dorsal and ventral sides of the heart. (The ventral side is more rounded than the dorsal side, and the thick walled arteries arise from this side). Note:The right and left atria (auricles) and right and left ventricles,Pulmonary artery and aorta arising from right and left ventricles,Anterior and posterior vena cava opening into right atrium,Coronary vessels in the heart wall,Figure 4 shows the ventral side of the heart clearly showing the pulmonary artery and aorta, the left and right atria and ventricles and the coronary vessels of the heart wall. Figure 4o Clamp posterior vena cava, then run water through anterior vena cava, from the water runs through the pulmonary artery, this is the route of the pulmonary circulation which receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation and transported to the lungs to be oxygenated. Now run water through the pulmonary vein, which vessel does the water emerge?The water runs through the aorta, this is the route of the systemic circulation, the systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood away from the heart to oxygenise respiring cells throughout the body. Figure 5Figure 5 shows the systemic circulation in red and the pulmonary circulation in blue. o Expose the left ventricle by a longitudinal cut through ventral wall of the ventricle, note your findings. Through the cut in the left ventricle wall the following observations were recorded. (see figure 3) The left ventricular walls were visible, consisting of thick myocardium (cardiac muscle); the reason for the thickness of the left ventricle is because the left ventricle is responsible for the pumping of blood at high hydrostatic pressure throughout the systemic arterial system. .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 , .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .postImageUrl , .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 , .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07:hover , .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07:visited , .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07:active { border:0!important; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07:active , .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07 .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9db23aeec6cd0b14f572de3a19faaa07:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Innocence of Scout in To Kill a Mockingbird EssayThe bicuspid valve, this valve is used to prevent backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the right atrium. Chordae tendinae, used to anchor the flaps of the bicuspid valve to the papillary muscle to prevent the valve turning inside out due to pressure. Papillary muscle, this is part of the myocardium of the ventricle and contains irregular shaped columns called trabeculane carnae. o Turn the heart upside down and run water into the ventricle through the slit you have cut, note your findings. The water ran through the aorta, as the left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta to be transferred via the systemic circulation. Figure 6 shows the interior of the heart. Figure 6o now turn the heart the right way up, run water through into the cut end of the aorta, note your findings The water appeared through the trabeculare carnae (irregular shaped columns in the papillary muscle) as a shower. o Cut open the left atrium and aorta by continuing your ventricular cut upwards, note your findings. Through the extended cut in the left ventricle the following were visible. Left atrium (auricle) this is the chamber which lies superior to the left ventricle, smaller than the right atrium (auricle) this houses the pulmonary veins which bring oxygenated blood from the lungs. The aortic valve (semi-lunar) this prevents backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle. The pulmonary vein which returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to be pumped around the body in the systemic circulation. o Expose the interior of the right ventricle by a longitudinal slit through ventral wall, note your findings. The cut in the right ventricle exposed: (see figure 3) The right ventricle wall was visible consisting of thinner myocardium (cardiac muscle) than the left ventricle this is due to less hydrostatic pressure required to push blood into the pulmonary artery, this is known as the pulmonary circulation. Tricuspid valve this is to prevent backflow of blood into the right atrium from the right ventricle. Chordinae tendinae used to anchor the flaps of the tricuspid valve to the papillary muscle this is to prevent the valve been turned inside out by pressure. Papillary muscle part of the myocardium and contain fewer trabeculare carnae than the left ventricle. The right ventricle has a larger funnel shaped area of smooth wall known as the conus arteriosus or infunibulum. o Slit open the right atrium and pulmonary artery by continuing your ventricular slit upwards, note your findings. Through the extended slit in the right ventricle clearly visible was: The right atrium, this is larger than the left atrium the two great veins (superior and inferior) vena cava deposit deoxygenated blood from around the body into the right atria. The pulmonary valve, this prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle. Coronary sinus which returns blood from the cardiac veins to the heart. o Note the opening of the coronary vein on the left hand side of the atrium; it is possible you may see a small oval depression this is the fossa ovalis, what do you suppose this is? The fossa ovalis is situated in the interatial septum (dividing wall of atria). During the stage of foetal development the blood flow is different from a newborn. The blood passes from the right atrium directly into the left atrium to be pumped around the body, this is made possible by a connecting tube called the foramen ovale, when a newborn baby inhales its first breath of air the pressure closes the foramen ovale and leaves behind the fossa ovalis, on some occasions a gap may be left this is referred to as a hole in the heart. Figure 7 shows the depression of the fossa ovalis situated in the right atriumFigure 7o Do you expect the foetal heart to differ from the adult heart? Why? Yes the foetal heart differs from the adult heart. .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c , .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .postImageUrl , .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c , .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c:hover , .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c:visited , .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c:active { border:0!important; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c:active , .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ueffedc032972b8f77bed3361b738fa8c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Legalize Marijuana EssayThe foetus although fully formed at twelve weeks is reliant on its mother until birth; the remaining twenty eight weeks are spent with maturation of the foetuss tissues and organs. The foetuss heart forms in the embryonic stage, beginning to beat at around week eight of gestation; although the heart is fully functional at this stage the lungs which play an essential part in the oxygenisation of blood in the cardiovascular system are not functional until birth. As the blood still needs to reoxygenise respiring cells a temporary substitute is the placenta, often referred to as the foetal lung it is responsible for filtering and supplying the foetus wi th oxygen and nutrients received from the maternal blood. For this process to take place the route the blood takes through the body needs to be diverted away from the lungs, as described above the foramen ovale passes blood through the interracial septum from the right atria to the left atria, this enables blood to bypass the right ventricle which intern stops the blood being pumped up the pulmonary artery. There is also a bypass system which connects the pulmonary trunk to the aorta; this called the ductus arteriosous which again enables blood to bypass the lungs. The ductus arteriosous and the foramen ovale close at birth with the first breath of the infant, this results in the two circulations of the heart (systemic and pulmonary) working alongside each other to bring homeostasis to the body.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Doing It Publicly Essays - Murder Of Scott Amedure,

Doing It Publicly With talk shows ruling day-time television, people are left with little choice but to watch this humiliating form of entertainment. Turn the television on in the afternoon and you will find a large variety of talk shows to choose from. Maybe we have become a nation addicted to hearing our neighbors' seamy personal problems?.Personally, I feel it is both the lack of choice and the attraction to other peoples problems. Many of the topics on talk shows are degrading to our society. If person came to America for the first time and watched television, they would probably see a talk show. The model a talk show would give of American society is horrifying. For example, a common talk show topic is teens having multiple sex partners at young ages. However, not all teens are sexually active at such a young age. For this reason talk shows are misleading not only to foreigners but to children and young adults who are learning about morals and our society. In a letter to the corporate CEO's distributing these programs, William Bennett and Senator Joseph Lieberman asked: Would you want your young children to view a program showcasing the sexual adventures of a 14-year-old girl who married her 71-year-old foster father(Flint and Wharton). To those who do not tune into these shows this discription may sound like an exaggeration; however, it is not. This is exactly the type of topics on some shows. Not only are half the shows ridiculous with topics of deceit, revenge and extreme behavior, but some of them are false(Flint and Wharton). On the Jerry springer Show a Canadian comedy troupe went on the show and created a story. The story was that one of the men had an affair with his baby-sitter. After the show appeared on television, the troupe members went to the press saying how they deceived the program and its audience(You 52). Some people will do anything to be on television. Some shows trick people into situations. The Jenny Jones show has had several episode entitled Secret Crush. In these episode secret admirers are revealed to her guests. In some cases her guests are displeased with their secret admirer. I can remember one episode that I watched. A woman was surprised by a man who had a secret crush on her. She was very disturbed when she realized who he was. She proceeded to tell Jenny that this man was insane and was pursuing her.This could have been avoided if the woman was told who the secret admirer was before the show. However, if this was done the show would not be as interesting. In another incident, one of Jenny's guests confronted a secert crush, and it led to tragedy. Amedure, a male guest had a crush on Johnathan Schmitz, another male. Amedure surprised Schmitz with his feelings on the show; however, Schmitz was expecting a woman, from the impression he was given by the shows producers. Schmitz said he was publicly embarrassed when Amedure revealed on national television that he had a gay crush on him. After the show Jonathan Schmitz was charged with the murder of Amedure. Schmitz shot Amedure and killed him( In some shows the guests are not informed of the topic, and they end up being embarrassed by a ridiculous topic. This is wrong because these people with their loved ones or friends sometimes involved are mislead and sometimes humiliated on national television by the producers. Even though the guests agree to appear on the shows because they wanted to, some regret it after the show (You 40). Therefore, we can not pose the guests as helpless victims because they are adults. Also, if they have seen a talk show before they went on one, they would know what they were getting themselves into. In my opinion there are just too many talk shows. According to Larry Pollock there are 32 talk shows on television right now(Flint and Wharton). There are a few talk shows that are conscientious and have very interesting and educational topics. For example Oprah Winfrey and Maury Povich are two shows that have many rewarding topics such as family reunions. They also have educational topics on child and spousal abuse. These shows are good because they expose us to different things that are going on in the world, things that we can change. The best thing to do is to shift through all the talk shows

Sunday, November 24, 2019

10 Ways to Sabotage Your Italian Progress

10 Ways to Sabotage Your Italian Progress There are ways to speak Italian quickly, and there are tips and tricks they dont teach in Italian language school. Conversely, there are methods and approaches that will slow down your progress and only prove frustrating and demotivating. You might have the best intentions, but here are ten sure-fire ways how not to learn Italian (or any foreign language, for that matter). 1. Think in English Perform the mental gymnastics that requires a lot of time and effort when conversing in Italian: think in English, then translate into Italian, then retranslate into English after hearing the speakers response. Now watch the listeners eyes glaze over as your brain painstakingly hashes out this unnecessarily complex process. At this rate, youll never learn Italian- unless you forget your native tongue. Think like an Italian if you want to speak like an Italian. 2. Cram Stay up late, drink plenty of espressos, and try to learn a semesters worth in one night. It worked in college, so it should work with a foreign language, right? Well, you cannot get into shape in just a few days at the gym, and you cannot learn Italian by studying just before a test. It takes repeated effort, over an extended period of time, to get results. Rome wasnt built in a day, and no one can become proficient in the Italian present subjunctive tense in an evening. 3. Get the Dubbed Version The Italian movie that was critically acclaimed and that everyones raving about? Its now available on DVD, in English no less. So sit back, microwave some popcorn, and watch the actors lips flap out of synch for two hours. Worse, miss the various nuances of the Italian language during conversations as well as the original voices. (In fact, many viewers believe that English-dubbed films bastardize the original.) Yes, its difficult to listen to a foreign movie in the original version, but no one ever said learning Italian was going to be easy. If the movie is that good, watch it twice- first in Italian, and then with subtitles. It will improve your comprehension, and more than likely the original dialogue will have shades of meaning that could never be conveyed by translation. 4. Avoid Native Italian Speakers Stick with English speakers when studying Italian, because after all, you can communicate with them at will without having to exert any extra effort to making yourself understood. You might not ever learn any of the nuances of Italian grammar, but then, at least you wont embarrass yourself. 5. Stick to Only One Method Theres only one way to learn Italian- your way! Cyclists in the Giro dItalia have bulging quadriceps and huge calf muscles, but their upper body is underdeveloped. Use the same muscles and youll get the same results. Youll never build up the proper lingual techniques required to sound like a native Italian (or at least close to it) if you dont cross-train. Avoid the linguistic equivalent (memorizing the lines in every Fellini movie, or knowing every verb thats related to cooking) and try a balanced approach, whether its reading an Italian textbook, completing workbook exercises, listening to a tape or CD, or conversing with a native Italian speaker. 6. Speak as if Youre Speaking English The Italian alphabet resembles the Latin alphabet used in English. So who needs to roll their rs? Why is it important to know the difference between open and closed es? Although certain Italian dialects might have pronunciation idiosyncrasies relative to standard Italian, that doesnt mean non-native speakers get to make up new rules regarding pronunciation. Get yourself to the linguistic gym and give that tongue a workout! 7. Attend a Learn Italian in 48 Hours Class Granted, there are benefits to learning Italian survival phrases when traveling to Italy, but your short term memory will fail you within days. And then what?! Instead, adopt a more deliberate approach, and learn the basics of the Italian language before traveling to Italy with an Italian for travelers e-mail course over several weeks time. Think of it as preparation for what a vacation in Italy should be: leisurely, with plenty of time for watching the world go by. 8. Dont Listen to Italian Radio or TV Since you cant understand the conversation anyway, dont bother tuning in (via cable or Internet) to Italian radio or TV broadcasts. The announcers speak too quickly, and without any context, your comprehension will approach zero. On the other hand, you might not be able to play a musical instrument, yet regardless if its classical, rap, hip-hop, or metal, you can easily pick up the rhythm, cadences, and tempo of any song. Keep that in mind, and it may be easier to incorporate the distinct intonation of Italian when speaking the language even if you dont understand the words themselves (many opera singers have near-perfect diction when performing Italian works, yet have only a rudimentary understanding of the language). 9. Remain Silently Foolish As the adage goes, It is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to open your mouth and remove all doubt. So sit there and say nothing in Italian, because otherwise, it will become evident rather quickly if you are unable to distinguish among false cognates in Italian. 10. Travel to Italy Only if Necessary Given the logistics of air travel nowadays, who in their right mind would want to travel to the country of the target language? Theres schlepping luggage everywhere, interminable waits in the airport and on the security line, and leg room sufficient only for children. Then, three times a day at meals, there will be a struggle trying to read menus and ordering food. Imagine, too, if you have certain food allergies or are a vegetarian and have to explain that to the cameriere (waiter)! In fact, if you make the effort, youll discover that traveling to Italy is the best way to learn Italian. While there will be challenges, being immersed in the language is guaranteed to improve your Italian language skills quicker than any other method. Consider it a linguistic adventure, and start planning your itinerary now.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Limitations of the Behaviourist Approach to the Study of Learning, Essay

The Limitations of the Behaviourist Approach to the Study of Learning, with Reference to Chomsky's Critique of Skinner - Essay Example Chomsky’s works have been rated as the most influential pieces in the study of psychology particularly concerning behaviourism. In this case, a lot of transformations were witnessed amongst learners who studied the language. With his works labelled as classics, and having all the evidence in regard to the study of language, as opposed to behaviourism that is too general, this work shall aim to understand the limitations of the behaviourist approach, with the reference to Skinner. 2.0. Body In the views of Noam Chomsky, the aspect of behaviour cannot be understood in the study of B.F. Skinner’s operant conditioning. According to the thoughts of Routledge & Chapman (2005) Chomsky indicates that Skinner’s work is the worst ever written in the history of psychology. In this case, Chomsky indicates that his work comprises tangible evidence and conclusions as compared to the behaviourism standpoint. First, Chomsky argues against the viewpoint of Skinner’s learni ng through operant conditioning by arguing that one cannot study the behaviour of an individual, but not the components under study. The psychologists in this case, must not rely on the existing evidence and the abilities portrayed by the individuals, but the psychologists must go a step ahead and analyze the contents of the brain of the persons under study. From the brain, the researchers are likely to understand how the behaviours portrayed by the individuals have come into practicality. The brain, according to Chomsky (2006), is the root of the behaviours portrayed by the individual. The behaviours are simply a replica of the processes that go on in the individuals’ brain and cannot be alienated from the end product that is the behaviours of the individuals (Chomsky, 2006). In relation to Chomsky, Skinner went for end product- the behaviours portrayed- without getting to the grounds in which the behaviour has its roots. According to Altmann & Gaskell (2007), Chomsky emphas ises that study of the brain gives evidence of the behaviours portrayed by the individuals. In his work, Chomsky compares the study of behaviour to referring to Physics as readings in Science without considering the fact that the readings are mere data collected after an occurrence of a certain experiment by the learners or scientists in the laboratory (Randall, 2007). The study, analysis, testing and comparisons of data in the study of any field are compulsory. The end product cannot be alienated from its components; thus, the study of behaviour by Chomsky holds much evidence as compared to Skinner’s study on operant conditioning and learning. On another view point, Chomsky indicates that yet another limitation of Skinner’s behaviourist approach is that he relied so much on speculations as compared to critical study of the conditional behaviour. Scheer (2010) indicates that Skinner applied experimental investigations that had unfounded experimental techniques that wou ld have led to his study to having valid evidence on human behaviour. The limited significance of the techniques led to the coming up with the premise that behaviour cannot rely on inferences, but critical analysis of facts. According to Shackelford & Vonk (2012), Chomsky holds the view that language can only be understood in relation to Information

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Nuclear plants and seafood safety Dissertation

Nuclear plants and seafood safety - Dissertation Example Contents†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦? List of Figures†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦? List of Tables†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..? Chapter 1 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..8 Chapter 2 Review of Literature†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦10 2.1 Nuclear energy science†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 10 2.2. Civilian use of nuclear energy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦12 2.3. Why nuclear energy?.....................................................................13 2.3.1. Fuel Shortage†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..13 2.3.2. Clean Energy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦15 2.3.3. Safe Energy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦16 2.3.4. Cost-effective Energy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦17 2.4 Nuclear plants: history †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦18 2.5. Risks of Nuclear Energy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦....19 2.5.1. Radioactive Contamination†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.19 2.5.2. Waste water and materials from nuclear plants†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..19 2.6 Impact of Nuclear Power Plants on Living Organisms in Sea and the Sea Ecosystem†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..23 2.7 Impact of Sea Food which has undergone radioactive contamination on Human Health †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..24 2.7.1 Safe Levels an d... The impact of nuclear plants on seafood safety has of late become a matter of grave concern, especially in the aftermath of Japanese Tsunami disaster and its fall out on the nuclear plants of Japan. Worldwide import ban on Japanese seafood was the immediate response to it. Though it is argued fish can be grown safely in the vicinity of a nuclear plant, the possibility of radioactive contamination cannot be ruled out as was found in the case of Sellafeld nuclear plant. Added to this, the thermal pollution caused by the effluent warm water from the nuclear plants has the potential to destroy the surrounding entire sea ecosystem, as was shown in the instances of massive algal blooms. Above all, the sustaining risk of a nuclear accident and the consequences to sea food, as was shown in the sea food studies in the aftermath of Japan’s Fukushima nuclear plant once again raise the question whether nuclear energy plants could be an option even. When a compilation is made of the availa ble literature on the threat posed by nuclear plants to sea food safety, negatives are found to far outweigh the positives. Notwithstanding many positive aspects of nuclear energy, the recent earthquakes on Japan’s sea coastline and the consequent risks that emerged from Japanese nuclear plants, signifies a need for rethinking on nuclear energy. There is emerging a major shift in the direction of discourses happening on the nuclear energy front in terms of choice and viability.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Based on a Case Study - Management in Technological Change Essay

Based on a Case Study - Management in Technological Change - Essay Example Technological developments and innovation has paved a way for the emergence of new digital marketing channels such as mobile phones. Mobile phones are powerful channels that allow personalisation and interactivity of the content and context of the messages. (Kim, Han, & Schultz, 2004) The mobile channel is seen as an automated, reliable, personal, and customised channel that allows an efficient way to reach mobile phone users directly. It provides a direct call-to-action that would be almost impossible via other channels. (Barnes & Scornacava, 2004) This paper will focus on the feasibility of the application of mobile CRM on Evergreen Investment. The company is a leading asset management firm serving institutional investors through a broad range of investment products. The company has an existing CRM system developed by Onyx. However, the sales representatives find the system taxing on their job and not value-adding on their operations. Management has considered the system ineffective and inefficient. A proposed solution of the paper is the development and implementation of a mobile CRM. The mobile software is a commercially available application developed by Pyxis. It is run in the Blackberry platform using the handheld mobile phone. This paper introduces the CRM capabilities and features of the Blackberry device with the Pyxis-Onyx database link. It enumerates the different impacts of the new system on the organisation, operation, costs, and current process of the company. It also identifies the potential benefits of a mobile CRM to both the Evergreen company and its sales representatives. Evergreen Investment is a mutual fund company with over $247 billion in assets under management. The company concentrates on providing institutional investors with asset management and client service solutions instead of focusing and marketing on individual consumers. The people behind the

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry today is in the front rank of Indias science-based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology. A highly organized sector, the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is estimated to be worth, $4.5 billion, growing at about 8 to 9 percent annually. It ranks very high in the third world, in terms of technology, quality and range of medicines manufactured. From simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds, almost every type of medicine is now made indigenously. The number of purely Indian pharmaceutical companies is fairly low. Indian pharmaceutical industry is mainly operated and controlled by dominant foreign companies having subsidiaries in India due to availability of cheap labour in India at lowest cost. Most pharmaceutical companies operating in India, even the multinationals, employ Indians almost exclusively from the lowest ranks to high level management. Mirroring the social structure, firms are very hierarchical. Homegrown pharmaceuticals, like many other businesses in India, are often a mix of public and private enterprise. Although many of these companies are publicly owned, leadership is passed from father to son and the founding family holds a majority share. In 2002, over 20,000 registered drug manufacturers in India sold $9 billion worth of formulations and bulk drugs. 85% of these formulations were sold in India while over 60% of the bulk drugs were exported, mostly to the United States and Russia. Most of the players in the Indian market are small-to-medium enterprises. It has been estimated that 250 of the largest companies control 70% of the Indian market. The 1970 Patent Act., made the multinational companies to represent only 35% of the market, down from 70%, thirty years ago. In terms of the global market, India currently holds a modest 1-2% share, but it has been growing at approximately 10% per year. India gained its foothold on the global scene with its innovatively engineered generic drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), and it is now seeking to become a major player in outsourced clinical research as well as contract manufacturing and research. There are 74 U.S. FDA-approved manufacturing facilities in India, more than in any other country outside the U.S, and in 2005, almost 20% of all Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA) to the FDA were filed by Indian companies. Growths in other fields notwithstanding, generics are still a large part of the picture. As such, the Indian pharmaceutical industry has now become the third largest producer in the world and is poised to grow into an industry of $ 20 billion by 2015, from the current turnover of $ 12 billion. As a result, manufacturing expertise and efficiency were the only requirements to participate in this industry, creating low barriers of entry. The most critical challenge facing the global pharmaceutical industry today is the increasing cost of drug discovery and development and the increasing time to market. This is further compounded by: Impending patent expirations of blockbuster molecules Pricing pressures Low public opinion Challenges to intellectual property by increasingly aggressive generic companies. Re-importation pressures Medicare/Medicaid reform Increasing regulatory hurdles This scenario is forcing the multinational pharmaceutical companies (MNCs) to rethink their strategic options in order to exploit their core competencies across the globe. In this situation, India stands to a gain a lot because of its inherent advantages like stability, culture, cost, and educated workforce. This has led to increased alliances and collaborations as a result; the leading Indian pharmaceutical companies have become some of the most efficient manufacturing units in the world. In fact, India has the highest number of US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) certified manufacturing facilities outside USA. The overall phenomenal progress made by the industry in the last three decades has instilled a strong belief in the government and the pharmaceutical companies in India that the country has a competitive strength and it should be enhanced by suitable policy measures and firm specific actions with regards to export, innovation, strategic alliances and investment. The pharmaceutical policy 2002 echoes the same sentiments and has shifted focus of the policy from self reliance in drug manufacturing to the objective of enhancing global competitiveness. The introduction of policy says: The basic objectives of the governments policy relating to drug and pharmaceutical sector were enumerated in drug policy of 1986. These basic objectives still remain largely valid, however, the drug and the pharmaceutical industry in the country today faces new challenges on account of liberalization of the Indian economy the globalization of the world economy and on account of new obligations undertaken by India under the WTO agreements. These challenges require a change in current pharmaceutical policy and the need for new initiatives beyond those enumerated in drug policy 1986, as modified in 1994, so that policy inputs are directed more towards promoting accelerated growth of the pharmaceutical industry and towards making it more internationally competitive. The need for radically improving the policy framework for knowledge-based industry has also been acknowledged by the government. The Prime Ministers Advisory Council on Trade and Industry has made important recommendations regarding knowledge-based industry. The Pharmaceutical industry has been identified as one of the most important knowledge based industries in which India has a comparative advantage. THE GROWTH STAGE OF INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY SECTION-1 2.1 GROWTH STAGES OF INDIAN PHARMA INDUSTRY Bengal Chemicals Pharmaceuticals Limited (BCPL), established in 1901, is a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) of the Government of India and is Indias first pharmaceutical company. The company was started by Prafulla Chandra Roy in Kolkata (then known as Calcutta) and has since manufactured such household Indian products as Hospitol, naphthalene balls, and Phenol. The company is headquartered in Kolkata and reported aggregated revenues of Rs 6,199 lakhs (US$ 138.2 million) in fiscal 2006. The Nascent industry, however, received setbacks in the post world war-II period as a result of new therapeutic developments in the western countries that triggered natural elimination of older drugs from market usage by newer drugs like sulpha ,antibiotics, vitamins, hormones, antihistamine, tranquilizers, psycho pharmacological substances etc. This culminated in the discontinuation of local production based on indigenous materials and forced the industry to import bulk drugs meant for processing them in to formulations and for selling in the domestic market. Figure- 2.1: stages of Growth of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry . Source: ISID Working Paper, 2006/05. The government started to encourage the growth of drug manufacturing by Indian companies in the early 1960s. In the post independence period, Indian pharmaceutical industry exhibited four stages of growth (see Figure 2.1 2.2). In the first stage during 1950s-60s, the industry was largely dominated by foreign enterprises and it continued to rely on imported bulk drugs notwithstanding its inclusion in the list of basic industries for plan targeting and monitoring. Foreign firms, enjoying a strong patent protection under the Patent and Design Act 1911, were averse to local production and mostly opted for imports from home country as working of the patent. Given the inadequate capabilities of the domestic sector to start local production of bulk drugs and hesitation of foreign firms to do so, the government decided to intervene through starting public sector enterprises. This led to the establishment of the Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (IDPL) plants at Rishikesh and Hyderabad in 1961 and the Hindustan Antibiotics at Pimpri, Pune, in 1954, to manufacture penicillin. The starting of the public sector enterprises has been an important feature in the evolution of the pharmaceutical industry as it assumed initiative roles in producing bulk drugs indigenously and led to significant knowledge spillovers on the private domestic sector. The second growth stage, of the industry took place in the 1970s. The enactment of the Indian Patent Act (IPA) 1970 and the New Drug Policy (NDP) 1978 during this stage are important milestones in the history of the pharmaceutical industry in India. The IPA 1970 brought in a number of radical changes in the patent regime by reducing the scope of patenting to only processes and not pharmaceutical products and also for a short period of seven years from the earlier period of 16 years. It also recognizes compulsory licensing after three years of the patent. The enactment of the process patent contributed significantly to the local technological development via adaptation, reverse engineering and new process development. As there exits several ways to produce a drug, domestic companies innovated cost-effective processes and flooded the domestic market with cheap but quality drugs. This led to the steady rise of the domestic firms in the market place. The NDP 1978 has increased the pressure on foreign firms to manufacture bulk drugs locally and from the basic stage possible. Foreign ownership up to 74 per cent under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) 1973 was permitted to only those firms producing high technology drugs. Foreign firms that are simply producing formulations based on imported bulk drugs were required to start local production from the basic stage within a two year period. Otherwise were required to reduce their foreign ownership holding to 40 per cent. New foreign investments were to be permitted only when the production involves high technology bulk drugs and formulations thereon. In the third growth stage or phase of evolution Indian pharmaceutical industry developed modern technology for manufacturing of all dosage forms like tablets, capsules ,liquid ,oral, injectables etc.. This domestic industry based on large scale reverse engineering and process innovation achieved near self sufficiency in production of bulk drugs belonging to various major therapeutic groups resulting in lasting impact on competitive position of Indian pharmaceutical firms in national and international markets. During , 1980-90s ,Indian pharmaceutical industry had emerged as one of the most export oriented sectors in Indian pharmaceutical industry with more than 30% of the production being exported to the foreign market. In 1991, domestic firms contribute about 70-80% market share in case of bulk drugs and formulations respectively. The trade deficits of seventies had been replaced by trade surpluses of 1980s. (FIG-2.1). The fourth stage of evolution of industry during 1990s witnessed dramatic changes in the policy regime governing the pharmaceutical industry. The drug de-licensing, hundred percent foreign investments is permitted through automatic route and price control has been significantly reduced. One of the major factors that have increased the confidence of foreign multinationals looking for local opportunities in India is the adoption of a new product patent regime in January 2005, before that India had already carried out three amendments in march-1999, June2002 and April 2005, in the patent act of 1970 to bring to bring Indian patent regime in harmony with the WTO agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs). The third and the final one, known as the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 came into force on 4th April 2005 and introduced product patents in drugs, food and chemicals sectors. The term of patenting has also been increased to a 20 year period. The number of pharmaceut ical units has also increased to over 23,000 in 2002, further more Fig: 2.2: Growth phase of Indian pharmaceutical industry graph1 SOURCE: BEST PHARMA INDUSTRY REPORT-2011-INDIA The fifth stage is in progression (Fig.2.2), in which we are observing investment in innovation and research, with enactment of new IP laws and investments in biotechnology aided companies. There is promising growth in production of bulk drugs and formulations (Table: 2.1) from Rs 10 crores in 1947-48 to Rs 21100 crores in 2002-03 in formulations and almost nil in 1947-48 to Rs 5400 crores in 2002-03 in bulk drugs production. The drug industry also becomes capable to spent 497crores in 2002-2003 from almost nil in 1947-48 on research and development of new molecules. All in all Indian drug sales are expected to rise by an annual 8% to nearly $26.59 bn between 2006 and 2015 and further is the matter of wait and watch depending up on conditions prevailing in international and domestic markets. In the UNIDO-classification of developing countries, according to the state of art in the pharmaceutical sector India is ranked among the top and today India manufactures over 400 bulk drugs and around 60,000 formulations. 2.2 Drug industry-growth As shown in, Table: 2.1 and table2.2, depicts the growth progress in production of bulk drugs and finished formulations. India produces bulk drugs related to various therapeutic areas. Indian pharmaceutical industry, manufactures over 400 bulk drugs and roughly 60,000 finished medicines used in different formulations. 2.3 THE GROWTH SCENARIO IN CONTINEUM: Indias US $ 3.1 billion pharmaceutical industry is growing at the rate of 14 percent per year. It is one of the largest and most advanced among the developing countries. Domestic Demand The industry has enormous growth potential. Factors listed below determine the rising demand for pharmaceuticals. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The growing population of over of a billion à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Increasing income à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Demand for quality healthcare service à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Changing lifestyle has led to change in disease patterns, and increased demand for new medicines to combat lifestyle related diseases. More than 85 per cent of the formulations produced in the country are sold in the domestic market, there has also been a record increase in consumption of drugs worldwide. India with its large population has recorded the therapeutic segmentation in healthcare market with changes in pattern of drug consumption in turn affecting its production.Fig:2.3 shows the percentage increase in sales in various therapeutic segments. India is largely self-sufficient in case of formulations. Some life saving, new generation under-patent formulations continue to be imported, especially by MNCs, which then market them in India. Overall, the size of the domestic formulations market is growing strongly at 10 percent per annum (Table, 2.4), with rs23047crores in 2006-07, from rs2350crores in 1987-88. Fig: 2.3: Percentage Increase therapeutic segments. SOURCE: ORG-MARG AUDIT-2011. Table 2.4 shows demand for drugs as per therapeutic segments, showing categories, for treatment of lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and central nervous system are on the increase. Health scenario is also changing. There are around 700,000 new cases of cancer each year and total of around 2.5 million cases. It is estimated that there are around 40 million people in India with diabetes and the number is rising, 5.1 million HIV/AIDS patients, and 14 million tuberculosis cases. According to industry reports, while the Indian pharmaceutical industry witnessed a growth of 7 to 8 percent, the cardio-vascular segment recorded 15 to 17 percent growth and anti-diabetes segment of over 10-12 percent growth. So, with the increase in diseases and various ailments, consumption of medicines is on increase day by day (refer, Fig: 2.3). As per estimates, Over 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers exist in the country. The domestic pharmaceuticals industry output is expected to exceed Rs260 billion in the financial year 2002, which accounts for merely 1.3% of the global pharmaceutical sector. Of this, bulk drugs had accounted for Rs 54 bn (21%) and formulations, the remaining Rs 210 bn (79%). Table: 2.5, shows the 16.98% CAGR for bulk drugs amounting to rs17, 307.02 crores in 2009-10. 2.4 BULK INDUSTRY GROWTH EX-IM MARKET The export market growth has been one of the most outstanding features of the Indian pharmaceutical industry (Table-2.5). Negligible before the 1970s, exports started picking up after the abolition of product patents in 1972, accelerating in the 1980s and then growing rapidly since the mid-1990s. In recent years, exports have been increasing annually at more than 20%. The proportion of exports in net sales for the studied 120 companies was 44%. The export market was found to be larger than the domestic market not only for large companies, such as Ranbaxy (Now owned by Japanese Daichi Sankyo Corporation), Dr. Reddys or Cipla , but also for smaller companies such as Granules , Shilpa Medicare, Kopran , Transchem, and Pure Pharmaceutical etc. The period between 2000 and 2010 witnessed Indias top 10 drug companies growing in their sales turnovers, ranging between Rs 500-Rs 800 crores, to professionally-run MNC generics manufacturing companies with turnovers ranging from Rs 3,500 crores t o over Rs 7,000 crores. India is among the top 20 pharmaceutical exporters world-wide. Most of these exporting firms earlier dependent on bulk drug supplies, small exports to unregulated markets in Africa and Asia and formulation sales in the domestic market, the last 10 years saw them aggressively tapping regulated markets of the US and Europe and penetrating into newer and emerging market Exports Over 60 per cent of Indias bulk drug production is exported. Indias pharmaceutical exports are to the tune of Rs 87 billion, of which formulations contribute nearly 55 per cent and the rest 45 per cent comes from bulk drugs. In financial year 2005, exports grew by 21 per cent. Domestic pharmaceutical export, growing at 30 per cent per annum, touched a new height of US $ 4.8 billion in the financial year 2006-07. The years exports will push the drug sectors contribution to Indias Forex earnings to 7.75 per cent from the current 5 per cent. The growth in drug exports, despite the pressing generic competition in the global markets, is attributed to increased Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) approvals in the US market and contribution from unconventional markets in Latin America, Australia and the emerging markets in the Middle East and African Region. The formulations and exports are largely to developing nations in CIS, South East Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the last 3 years generic exports to developed countries have picked up.In the coming years, opening up of US generics market and anti AIDS market in Africa will boost exports. Indias pharmaceutical sector has seen unprecedented changes in the past decades ensuing for a remarkable growth in its exports (pharmaceutical exports occupy a share of 4.4% to 5.2% of Indias total exports over the last 6 years) and exports grew at a CAGR of around 22% in the 6 year period of 2004-05 to 2009-10( Fig:2.4). Indias growth story in itself vindicates its potential; it had a $ 333.33m turnover in 1980 to around $22.30 bn. by 2010-11 FIG: 2.4 PHARMA EXPORT TOTAL EXPORT SHARE pharmaceutical industry in the country today faces new challenges on account of LIbralisation of the Indian economy graph2.JPG SOURCE: Indian pharmaceutical export [emailprotected] 2.5 Revenue from Export As earlier discussed India accounts for less than two per cent of the world market for pharmaceuticals, with an estimated market value of US $ 10.4 billion in 2007 at consumer prices, or around US $ 9 per capita but has the potential to reach more than 2% by 2020. India currently represents just US $ 6 billion of the $ 550 billion global pharmaceutical industry but its share is increasing at 10 percent a year, compared to 7 percent annual growth for the world market overall. Also, while the Indian sector represents just 8 percent of the global industry total by volume, putting it in fourth place worldwide, it accounts for 13 percent by value, and its drug exports have been growing 30 percent annually. Cipla, Nicholas Piramal, Ranbaxy, Zydus Cadila, Dr. Reddys are the few Indian pharmaceutical companies, which are known at the global level due to their quality products. The Indian market for over-the-counter medicines (OTCs) is worth about $940 million and is growing 20 percent a year, or double the rate for prescription medicines. The industrys exports were worth more than $3.75 billion in 2004-05 and they have been growing at a compound annual rate of 22.7 percent over the last few years, according to the governments draft National pharmaceuticals Policy for 2006, published in January 2006. The Policy estimates that, by the year 2010, the industry has the potential to achieve $22.40 billion in formulations, with bulk drug production going up from $1.79 billion to $5.60 billion. Import Imports have registered a CAGR of only 2 per cent in the past 5 years. Import of bulk drugs have slowed down in the recent years as per DGIC reported data in the year 2010-11. The value of export was Rs 10,937 Crores, recording a declining growth of 9.82% as compared to 15.15% in 2009-10. The situation is advantageous and good sign, as the industry is becoming self reliant in production and less dependent on foreign markets. Based on the retrospective data, USA, Germany, Russia, UK, China, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Nigeria, Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, Vietnam, Israel, Italy, Mexico, UAE, Singapore, Iran had been potential importers of Indian Drugs. Countries like South Africa, Israel, Turkey, Kenya, Singapore, UK, China, Russia, Italy and Vietnam etc. have been identified to be potential prospective markets with high growth rates of imports from India. Africa, Latin America, ASEAN and CIS countries with huge demands deem them to be put in the category of focus countries as these are the emerging markets and have a huge potential with day in day out incremental growth rates of per capita drugs consumptions supported by treaties like SAFTA (with SAARC), treaties with GCC, EU, Japan, Korea etc. As shown in table: 2.10, based on such estimates, it has been predicted that the 17% export growth of Rs 248,000 crores would be achieved in 2019-20 with a domestic growth of 22% amounting to Rs 233,000c rores. Section-II CROSS BORDER ACQUISITIONS IN INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY 2.6 INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR CROSS-BORDER ACQUISITION The health-care costs are rising world-wide. Leading companies across the world are merging. Strategic alliances and collaborations are taking place in order to meet the increasing RD budgetary requirement that exceed billion dollars each for many leading global pharmaceutical players. Indian Drug manufacturers are pursuing foreign acquisitions due to their need to: Improve global competitiveness Move up the value chain Create and enter new markets Increase their product offering Acquire assets (including research and contract manufacturing firms, in order to further boost their outsourcing capabilities) and new products Consolidate their market shares Compensate for continued sluggishness in their home market. Often there is a significant overlap of expenditure in creating manufacturing assets or investing in RD either in generics or in basic research resulting into wastages at national level. Consequently corporate have indulged either in acquisitions or mergers to avoid duplication of investments and capture larger market share at global place. Table 2.7 shows the data of number of overseas acquisitions by Indian pharmaceutical Industry. We can conclude that the year 2005 witnessed the maximum number of overseas acquisition due to paradigm change in pharmaceutical policies and enactment of certain new laws which are later discussed in this chapter. Indian companies had gained a lot by these cross border acquisitions and details of which has been given in table 2.8 Many Indian companies are seeking to expand their distinctive capabilities by acquiring specific skills, knowledge and technology abroad that are either unavailable or of inadequate quality at home. By mergers and acquisitions they get advantage of acquiring new resources and gain entry to new markets for better profitability. Table2.8 shows the number of cross border acquisitions by Indian companies with their focus areas. 2.7 INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET AND THE WORLD : DISCUSSION The period between 2000 and 2010 witnessed Indias top 10drug companies growing in their sales turnovers, ranging between Rs 500-Rs 800 crore, top professionally-run MNC generics manufacturing companies with turnovers ranging from Rs3,500 crore to over Rs 7,000 crore. India is among the top 20 pharmaceutical exporters world-wide. Most of these exporting firms earlier depended on bulk drug supplies, small exports to unregulated markets in Africa and Asia and formulation sales in the domestic market, the last 10years saw them aggressively tapping regulated markets of the US and Europe and penetrating into newer and emerging markets. The Indian industry had filed only 3 marketing applications with the USFDA in 1998, the number swelled to 148 in 2009. Approximately $123bn of generic products is at risk (subject to patent renewal approvals by regulators) of losing patents by 2012.Even at a conservative estimate of 15% opportunity this translates into $18.4bn opportunity for India. However the figures need to be appropriately deflated since Indian opportunity will lie in generics equivalent of branded drugs, which would be cheaper. Ageing populations of the US (plus the 2010 US Healthcare Reforms in action), China European economies leading to the more and more expenditure on medicines and appreciation in the per capita consumption value of the drug products with cheaper rates. As global markets such as North America, Europe and Japan continue to slow down (graphical representation below), pharmaceutical companies are scanning markets for new growth opportunities to boost drug discovery potential, reduce time to market and squeeze costs along the value chain. The Industry is beginning to realize that some of the most promising opportunities will come from emerging markets (Asia/Australia/Africa Latin America). IMSHealth and other sources suggest that emerging markets (China, India, Brazil, Russia, Turkey, Mexico and South Korea) will contribute to over 40% of the incremental growth of the global Pharmaceutical industry over the next decade. With its enormous advantage ,including a large well educated ,skilled and English speaking workforce, low operational costs and improving regulatory infrastructure, India has the potential to become the regions hub for pharmaceutical and biotechnology discovery research, manufacturing, exporting and health care services within the next decade. However, in order for this to happen, it is imperative that the regulatory environment continues to improve . otherwise ,India will have to face tough competition from china leading to capture of market shares by china as their government strong commitment and pro industry policies have produced a favorable and protective environment for not only product patent but also for crucial data protection so while developing an Indian collaborative RD strategy, pharmaceutical MNCs should keep in mind certain issues like data and IP security, performance metrics, and quality standards, and address and evaluate these upfront to ensure a successful relati onship. Although the major factor that has increased the confidence of foreign multinationals looking for local opportunities in India is the adoption of a new product patent regime in January 2005. This already had facilitated concurrent global phase II and III clinical trials. A new patent regime has changed the dynamics of the Indian pharmaceuticals industry in other respects, too. Several leading domestic producers have begun to conduct original research into new chemical entities (NCEs) and novel drug delivery systems. However, these companies are likely to license most of these drug candidates to Western pharmaceutical companies, because few Indian companies can afford the high costs and failure rates associated with developing an NCE. In this context, several Indian firms have already entered into research partnerships with multinationals. Some pharmaceutical MNCs like AstraZeneca have opened their own captive research centers in India to take advantage of the low costs as we ll as availability of high quality intellectual work force. Russia 2013, marketing insight estimates. (ASSOCHAM). IMS estimates the healthcare market in India at $31.59 bn. by 2020, whereas the global management consulting major, McKinsey Co. predicts that the Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to touch $40 by 2015. The industry has given employment to approximately 2.86 mn people and has around 20,053 units. Globally, India is 4th in terms of volume (8% of worlds production), 13th in terms of value, and 17th in terms of pharmaceutical export value. The drugs and pharmaceuticals exported are worth over $3.8 bn. Section-III INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET 2.8 DOMESTIC PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET The pharmaceutical industry in India meets around 70% of the countrys demand for bulk drugs, drug intermediates, pharmaceutical formulations, chemicals, tablets, capsules, orals and injectibles. There are about 250 large units and about 8000 Small Scale Units, which form the core of the pharmaceutical industry in India (including 5 Central Public Sector Units). These units produce the complete range of pharmaceutical formulations, i.e., medicines ready for consumption by patients and about 350 bulk drugs, i.e., chemicals having therapeutic value and used for production of pharmaceutical-formulations. As discussed in earlier chapters about the Indian Pharmaceutical sector which is highly fragmented with more than 20,000 registered units. It has expanded drastically in the last two decades. The leading 250 pharmaceutical companies control 70% of the market with market leader holding nearly 7% of the market share. It is an extremely fragmented market with severe price competition and government price control. North Indian states UTs are also engaged in production of pharmaceutical products, few states like Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, are also providing tax holidays so as to motivate the pharma companies to enhance their production facilities, more over the climatic conditions and other macro factors are suitable for the growth of pharma and especially biotech., Industries in these two states. Table2.14 shows the state wise distribution in north India. FiG.-2.6 :STATE- WISE DISTRIBUTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR IN INDIA, 2010-11 . graph3.JPG Source: Annual report: 201